Srinivasa Ramanujan was born on 22 December 1887 into a Tamil Brahmin Iyengar family in Erode, Madras Presidency (now Tamil Nadu). He was a Great Indian mathematician who lived during the British Rule in India. He made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions, including solutions to mathematical problems considered to be unsolvable even without any formal coaching in mathematics.
In 1913 he began a postal communicational partnership with the English mathematician G. H. Hardy at the University of Cambridge, England in order to seek someone who would understand his work. Ramanujan independently compiled nearly 3,900 results which mostly comprises of identities and equations. He was the first Indian to be a fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge.
Ramanujan died of amoebiasis in 1920 at the age of 32 after his return to India in 1919. He was diagnosed with tuberculosis and a severe vitamin deficiency during his time in England.
On 26 February 2012, the Indian government declared 22 December to be National Mathematics Day as announced by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh at Madras University, during the inaugural ceremony of the celebrations to mark the 125th anniversary of the birth of the Indian mathematical genius Srinivasa Ramanujan. 2012 is also celebrated as the National Mathematics Year.
Ramanujan, a deeply religious Hindu, credited his substantial mathematical capacities to divinity, and his family goddess as stated by him "An equation for me has no meaning unless it expresses a thought of God."